Episode 004: The Hermit and the Logos

This time, I discuss my path into the esoteric tradition, the Hermit from the Major Arcana of the tarot, the Greek conception of the Logos, the polarities of subject/object and imagination/ego, and more.

Cards:

 

My Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/hermeticgarden

Note that all of links to Amazon are sponsored/associate links. Purchasing materials via these links is another way to support me.

Andrea, Hans. Harry Potter for Seekers. Website.

Angel, Will. An Immortal Science: Alchemy’s Role in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. PDF.

Blake, William. Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Online.

Brett, Ana. Navel Power. DVD.

Case, Paul Foster. The Tarot: A Key to the Wisdom of the Ages. PDF.

Cicero, Chic & Tabatha. New Golden Dawn Ritual Tarot. Book.

Crowley, Aleister. Magick Without Tears. PDF.

Crowley, Aleister. The Vision and the Voice. Online.

Fiennes, Maya. Kundalini Yoga with Maya Fiennes. DVD.

Freke, Tim. The Jesus Mysteries. Book.

Freke, Tim. Jesus and the Lost Goddess. Book.

Freke, Tim. The Laughing Jesus. Book.

Gorski, William. Yeats and Alchemy. Book.

Granger, John. Unlocking Harry Potter. Book.

Hall, Manly P. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. Book.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Philo of Alexandria.” Online.

Jaynes, Julian. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Book.

Jung, Carl. Psychology and Alchemy. Book.

Marvell, Andrew. “To His Coy Mistress.” Online.

Masters, Edgar Lee. “Griffy the Cooper” from Spoon River Anthology. Online.

Murphy, Derek. Jesus Potter Harry Christ. Book.

Peverly, Ryan. Occulture Podcast. iTunes. Patreon.

Rowling, J.K. Book set.

Shelley, Percy. Prometheus Unbound. Online.

Steiner, Rudolf. Ancient Myths and the New Isis Mystery. Online.

Sugerman, Shirley. Evolution of Consciousness: Studies in Polarity. Book.

Tenacious D. Master Exploder. YouTube.

Weor, Samael Aun. The Perfect Matrimony: The Door to Enter Into Initiation: Tantra and Sexual Alchemy. Book.

Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. Book.

Yeats, W.B. “A General Introduction for My Work.” Online.

Yeats, W.B. “Rosa Alchemica.” Online.

Yeats, W.B. “The Two Trees.” Online.

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Episode 003: Symbol, Ritual, and the Picture of Dorian Gray

After a long hiatus, in the third episode of Hermetic Garden, I discuss symbols in ceremonial rituals and relate them to The Picture of Dorian Gray.

Support me via http://www.patreon.com/hermeticgarden

The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde. https://amzn.to/2APVayA

The Picture of Dorian Gray (audiobook), by Oscar Wilde. Read by John Gonzalez. https://librivox.org/the-picture-of-dorian-gray-by-oscar-wilde/

Vera, or the Nihilists, by Oscar Wilde. https://amzn.to/2MnKbkE

Understanding Aleister Crowley’s Thoth Tarot, by Lon Milo DuQuette. https://amzn.to/2CtxW1o

“Rosa Alchemica,” by W.B. Yeats. http://brdyweb.com/thesis/story1.html

The Unfolding Self, by Ralph Metzner. https://amzn.to/2DkoxuH

Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion, by Northrop Frye https://amzn.to/2FITjPn

“An Esoteric View of the Rose-Croix Degree,” by Leon Zeldis. http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/zeldis11.html

The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic, by Israel Regardie. https://amzn.to/2W3vV4U

Prospero’s Island: The Secret Alchemy at the Heart of the Tempest, by Noel Cobb. https://amzn.to/2MkmFVr

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Episode 002: Yeats and the Divine Genius, Part 2

Shownotes:

This episode continues with my analysis, taking the poems to their inspirational yet hopeless conclusion.

Like what you hear? Support me on Patreon!

Resources:

Episode 001 (Part 1)

Susie Chang and Mel Meleen. Fortune’s Wheelhouse. Podcast.

Yasuko Suzuki. “Yeats’s ‘From the Antigone’: Desire and Loss.” The Harp. Vol. 15 (2000), pp. 47-58. Critical essay.

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thoth-adjustment

Strength

Episode 001: Yeats and the Divine Genius, Part 1

38 minutes, 20 seconds

Shownotes:

I started a podcast! This episode revisits a blog I wrote several years ago but takes the series of poems several steps further. In this episode I analyze the first five of the eleven poems. Part 2 will analyze the rest.

As always, I discuss Kabbalah, mysticism, symbol, language, and much more.

You can access my Patreon page here.

Errors:

  • I say that Yeats joined the Golden Dawn in 1889. He actually joined in 1890. He was a part of several Hermetic societies in the 1880s.
  • I realize there’s an error when I read the first poem – the audio sounds jumbled. I’ll fix this tonight and re-upload the audio.

Resources:

Golden Dawn Magical Tarot. Amazon

Gorski, William T. Yeats and Alchemy. Book. Amazon.

MacGregor Mathers, S. L. The Tarot: Its Occult Significance, use in Fortune Telling, and Method of Play, Etc. Book.

MacGregor Mathers, S. L. Kabbalah Unveiled. Book. Amazon.

Mann, Neil. W.B. Yeats and A Vision. Website. http://www.yeatsvision.com/

Peneton, Brady. “The Winding Cabbala: Yeats’ Use of Cabbalistic Mythology of Spiritualization and Imagination in ‘A Woman Young and Old.’” Critical essay. Blog.

Raine, Kathleen. “Yeats, the Tarot, and the Golden Dawn.” Critical essay. Amazon.

Regardie, Israel. The Complete System of the Golden Dawn. Book. Amazon.

Yeats, William Butler. “The Lake Isle of Innisfree.” Audio recording on YouTube.

Yeats, William Butler. “Per Amica Silentia Lunae.” Essay

Yeats, WIlliam Butler. “Magic.” Essay

Yeats, William Butler. “The Body of the Father Christian Rosencrux.” Essay

Yeats, WIlliam Butler. “The Two Trees.” Poem

Yeats, William Butler. A Woman Young and Old. Poems

The Tree of Life:

Golden Dawn Cipher Manuscript, Folio 28:

Golden Dawn Classic Tarot. The Lovers:

Golden Dawn Classic Tarot. The Sun:

Golden Dawn Classic Tarot. Judgment:

Credits

Intro Song: Kevin MacLeod – “Backed Vibes Clean.”

Alchemy and Gnosticism in Final Fantasy X

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The first time I played Final Fantasy X was around 2002, when a friend let me borrow it one summer. I was hooked immediately. Since this first experience with it, I have played through the game countless times, spending many summers or weeks between semesters at college with one of my favorite games of all time. As I got further in my study of literature, mythology, and mysticism, I made connections between the traditions I was reading and FFX. I began to see the patterns and ideas behind FFX’s story that paralleled others, and it was a fascinating and liberating experience. When reading Joseph Campbell’s concept of monomyth, Jung’s explication of alchemy, and treatises in the Hermetic tradition, my mind has consistently turned to this game as an exemplar of these patterns and concepts. When I was young, I didn’t quite grasp the profundity of Tidus’ journey, and though I loved the gameplay and the narrative, I thought the story was some anti-church, anti-religion atheistic manifesto: the head church officials of Spira perpetuate Sin in the world by their faulty traditions, knowingly give the lives of Spira’s summoners and their guardians over to Sin, and keep the masses docile via a ban on technology, or machina. Of course, this is all true, but the story is much more complex. Final Fantasy X tells the story of a liberation of soul and spirit from bondage and contains dozens of brilliant uses of various mythological traditions, including Gnosticism and alchemy.

The word sin evokes strong feelings for both Christians and non-Christians alike. The koine Greek word which is translated sin in English is hamartia. Hamartia (ἁμαρτία) means, literally, “to miss the mark,” originally an archery term for when one misses the target, possibly evoking for some classicists an image of Cupid accidentally shooting earth-dwellers (or fellow gods) with arrows, infecting them with passion. In the Pauline epistles, the word for law is nomos, and Paul’s hamartia is an inborn principle in the natural, fallen human that gives humans a tendency toward defying the nomos (which is in place, given by God, to restrain these tendencies). Ultimately, for Paul, the death of Christ gave him a freedom from the nomos, not because he did not follow it anymore, but because he was no longer bound by it. That is, Christ’s death internalized the nomos for Paul, while it had put an end to hamartia. Of course, the word sin has come to carry a meaning far beyond the way the Greeks, and even Paul, used it, especially in Christian churches whose members are concerned with the operations of society and the actions of the individuals in that society, for fear these individuals will go to hell (Hebrew sheol, literally “grave”). Putting the reality of the Judeo-Christian hell aside, let’s move on to the topic at hand: Final Fantasy X. In the story, the people of Spira have named the gigantic monster “Sin,” a monster whom followers of Yevon believe is a punishment for their past transgressions.

In FFX, pilgrimaging summoners and their guardians attempt to destroy Sin and bring about a temporary Calm, only to keep a new Sin (necessary to remove the old one) remaining in Spira (whose name sounds like “spiral”). Unbeknownst to Tidus when he sets off on his journey with Yuna, the destruction of Sin necessitates two sacrifices: a sacrifice of the summoner him- or herself and a sacrifice of one of the summoner’s guardians. Although the summoner is lost forever, the sacrificed guardian becomes the new Sin. The cycle continues in this way, and it would have continued forever if not for the actions of Yuna and her companions in the story of FFX – where the summoner and her guardians fight and destroy the previous final aeon, Tidus’ father Jecht, rather than summoning a final aeon to swallow Jecht – and the summoner and guardian – up.

As some of you may know, aeon is used in Gnosticism to describe the emanations of God. The first of three Aeons in many systems is known variously as Sige (“silence”), Ennoea (“thought”), or Charis (“grace”), and is a perfect being. The next two emanations, one male and one female, are Nous (“mind”) and Aletheia (“truth”). These aeons dwell in the upper strata of Pleroma (that is, “the region of the light”); meanwhile, those that dwell at the lower end of Pleroma are closer to the darkness or material world. Though each system begins with the perfect being and ends in the material realm (darkness), different Gnostic systems have separate accounts of and names for the emanations. Furthermore, as Wikipedia explains, in Gnosticism, the

transition from immaterial to material, from noumenal to sensible, is created by a flaw, passion, or sin in an Aeon. According to Basilides, it is a flaw in the last sonship; according to others the sin of the Great Archon, or Aeon-Creator, of the Universe; according to others it is the passion of the female Aeon Sophia, who emanates without her partner Aeon, resulting in the Demiurge (Greek Δημιουργός), a creature that should never have been. This creature does not belong to Pleroma, and the One emanates two savior Aeons, Christ and the Holy Spirit, to save humanity from the Demiurge. Christ then took a human form (Jesus), to teach humanity how to achieve Gnosis. The ultimate end of all Gnosis is metanoia [(Greek *μετάνοια*, or “repentance”)]—undoing the sin of material existence and returning to Pleroma.

That is, Gnostics in antiquity disagreed (at least superficially) about what exactly causes the transition from the noumenal to the phenomenal (or sensible) world. However, the solution for sin, for the tendency toward the material realm, was always the same – metanoia. Much like hamartia, the word metanoia has become much distorted also. To achieve metanoia, one need not enter into a sobbing fit in a confessional of a church or admit all one’s wrongdoings to one’s mother or principal, including that time you cheated on your homework in high school, as the word repentance may connote for some today. Metanoia simply means “changing one’s mind” – that is, it is something that is done inwardly to oneself, not outwardly. It is a shift in one’s mind away from darkness and toward the region of light: “Long hast thou dwelt in Darkness,” the Neophyte Ritual of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, dense with Gnostic thought, tells its initiates, “Quit the Night and seek the Day”  (Regardie 126).

Anyway, each of Spira’s summoners has access to the pantheon of aeons, access to each of which is gained through prayer at a designated temple, only after completing an ordeal called a Cloister of Trials. Each Final Fantasy aeon is conceptually borrowed from a religious or mythological system, several of which are highlighted in Table 1 below.

Aeon Name comes from… Appears as… More info
Valefor The sixth spirit of the Goetia, demon by day of the third decanate of Taurus, apparently a “good familiar, but tempts to steal” (Godwin 323). According to Mathers, “a lion with the bellowing head of an ass.” Deliriums Realm
Ifrit Class of jinn who embody fire in Arabian mythology Jinn, djinn, or genies inhabit the invisible realm. According to the Qu’ran, the jinn are the third class of sentient creatures alongside angels and humans. Wikipedia
Ixion In Greek mythology, Ixion was summoned to the table of the gods, and hit on Hera. Jupiter tricked Ixion into sleeping with a cloud made to look like Hera, and was strapped to a flaming wheel that revolves around the world as punishment. Probably human, but the fake Hera gave birth to the centaurs; hence, Ixion appears as a horse-like creature. Pantheon.org
Shiva Shiva, Hindu god of destruction, or possibly the Slavic goddess of  life and fertility, Ziva. (Both are appropriate, given that Shiva is also the god of duality.) Shiva appears blue (like FFX’s Shiva) after saving the world by drinking poison. Ziva appears as a scantily clad woman (also like FFX’s Shiva). Sanatan Society

Wikipedia

Bahamut Behemoth is a land monster (as opposed to Leviathan, a water monster) in Hebrew mythology, mentioned in Job 40:15 and identified with the Devil in apocalyptic literature (e.g. Revelation).

Bahamut, certainly related to Behemoth, is also a large fish that supports the earth in Arabian mythology.

Chaos monster destroyed at the time of creation, sometimes a dragon.

Large fish, sometimes having the head of a hippopotamus or an elephant.

According to Borges, Bahamut is the large fish that Jesus beholds on the 496th night of the One Thousand and One Nights: “It carries a bull on its head; the bull bears a rock, and above the rock is an angel who carries the seven stages of the earths. Beneath Bahamut is an abyss of air, then fire, and beneath that a giant serpent called Falak.”

Behemoth – Wiki

Bahamut – Wiki

Of course, Braska’s Final Aeon is not borrowed from other mythologies; other than “Jecht,” (it is called “Jecht, l’Ultime Chimère” in the French version) the aeon doesn’t even have a name: it is wholly a fantasy, a chimera, of its summoner Braska’s imagination. Years after Braska’s summoning, once Sin had returned, Braska’s daughter and Jecht’s son set out to bring the Calm once again, continuing the cycle. In literature, and especially in the Bible, there is a figurative use of the father/son and father/daughter relationship that will be relevant here.

The father/son and father/daughter relationship in literature is a metaphorical one. The son of the father-son relationship is much like a disciple rather than a literal child that a father has birthed. Consider for a moment the following: when a mentor or teacher teaches someone an idea, the teacher gives “birth” to that idea in that person’s mind. Whole systems could be given birth in this way if the teacher is some combination of effective, careful, and crafty. Art, especially literature, uses this metaphor to a large extent; the first use that comes to my mind is Ezekiel 16:3, when the prophet speaks to Israel (who is metaphorically a woman – sometimes an adopted child of God, sometimes an adulterous lover of God – throughout the prophets):

Thus saith the Lord God unto Jerusalem: Thy birth and thy Nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite…

The passage continues to describe how the Lord God clothed her and raised her as his own, but the metaphorical parentage here is all we care about for now: the “father” of Israel/Jerusalem was culturally an Amorite. In the same vein, often in Western literature, the “father” of the hero should be taken doubly as a biological father and a spiritual father; the father is both the father of the body and of the mind or thought. For a mundane example, the late Northrop Frye has been called the “critical father” of contemporary critic Harold Bloom, and the anxiety of this relationship haunts Bloom in a way. Bloom, the “critical son” of the relationship takes a tremendous influence from Frye’s thought, and there’s certainly a debt and a bit of resentment in Bloom’s mind.

Tidus’ journey of reconciliation with his father takes the archetypal pattern of the “hero’s journey” myth, sometimes called monomyth. As Joseph Campbell describes, the journey (depicted as a cycle) may include any or all of the following, outlined in three acts: Act I, Separation; Act II, Descent and Initiation; and Act III, Return. First, the hero is called to adventure, and the hero usually refuses the call. Next, the hero meets his mentor and crosses the threshold. The hero goes through a series of tests, meeting allies and enemies along the way. Eventually, the hero approaches an “inmost cave” and faces a great challenge, the completion of which gives him a reward or boon. The story then focuses on the road back, when there is a breakthrough to the other side once again, a resurrection, and a return with a boon for the people. Each step and its manifestation in FFX are outlined below in Table 2.

Archetypal Step Appears in FFX as…
Call to adventure Auron’s call to Tidus and the appearance of Sin in Tidus’ Zanarkand
Meeting the Mentor Tidus and the player meet Auron
Crossing the threshold Tidus and Auron get sent to Spira through contact with Sin
Tests, allies, and enemies Path to Zanarkand, the “tests” at the temples, the guardians, and the enemies (e.g. Seymour)
Approach the inmost cave Enter into the belly of Sin
The ordeal Defeat of Sin
Reward The Eternal Calm

Tidus’ allies – Yuna and her guardians – have the option to collect sigils and crests to unlock their celestial weapons along the journey to the inmost cave. Each sigil and crest pair is named after one of the seven planets in Chaldean astrology. The table below lists each character and corresponding planet in the US English version of the game, ordered from closest to farthest from Earth.

Character Planet
Yuna Moon
Rikku Mercury
Lulu Venus
Tidus Sun
Auron Mars
Wakka Jupiter
Kimahri Saturn

Aside from being the only apparently moving sources of light in the sky, these seven planets were named and venerated, painted on Babylonian temples as a series of “planes” to the divine, and were thought to have influence over the fate of humans. The table above orders the planets by their apparent proximity to Earth, like a ladder up to the stars if we were living in a geocentric universe.

If you recall, the first three emanations of God in Gnosticism are the perfect being, then a male, and then a female emanation – grace, mind, and truth.  This may remind some of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, whose first three Sephiroth (or spheres) are Kether (Crown), Chokmah (Wisdom), and Binah (Understanding). The last two of the three spheres on the Tree of Life, like the last two of the three emanations of God mentioned from Gnosticism, are masculine and feminine, respectively, the first providing the ability to conceive and the third providing the possibility for a thought to take a shape. The ten spheres of the Tree – which are emanations from God, and not necessarily of God – are depicted across three columns. In order after Binah, they are Chesed, Geburah, Tiphareth, Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Malkuth.

In some Kabbalistic traditions (mostly those of the Hermetic flavor), practitioners attribute to each of the spheres along the Tree of Life a planet, and each of the 22 Major Arcana of the tarot to the connecting paths between them, as can be seen here. I should mention here that each of the Major Arcana cards are also attributed to a Hebrew letter, and additionally some are given a planet, a zodiacal constellation, or a classical element.

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There exists a fantastic set of correspondences in FFX using the Tree of Life from Qabalah. As shown above, the characters’ sigils and crests correspond to the seven planets used in Chaldean astrology. In the game, there are certain places wherein only Wakka, Tidus, and Rikku may go (only these three members of your party can swim; the other members must remain behind). Do these three members’ planetary attributions bear a connection to their ability to swim underwater? You’ll notice that the corresponding Sephiroth of their planets (Mercury, Sun, Jupiter) on the Tree appear in a kind of diagonal line, beginning on the side of Mercy in Chesed and ending on the side of Severity in Hod. The paths connecting these three Sephiroth (and one adjacent) are attributed to the three earthy zodiacal constellations: between Hod/Mercury and Tiphareth/Sun lies The Devil/Capricorn (cardinal earth), and between Tiphareth/Sun and Chesed/Jupiter lies The Hermit/Virgo (mutable earth). The third earth card or sign, The Hierophant/Taurus (fixed earth) lies between Chesed and Chokmah, just above Wakka’s sphere. Most of you will be familiar with the hierarchy of the classical elements – in order, starting with the most subtle, they are fire, air, water, and earth. Naturally, the reason Wakka, Tidus, and Rikku are able to travel and explore under the “water” in the game is their earthiness.

(In his book on astrology, Aleister Crowley describes an aspect of the human psyche and calls it the Sensorium. The Sensorium is the part of the soul that stores sense perceptions and sends them back into consciousness. I think the Wakka, Tidus, Rikku trio is something like this aspect of the mind.)

Now, if this idea is applied to the story, we begin to see much more meaning in all of these attributions and connections. The first person Tidus (the Sun) encounters after his first contact with Sin (besides the dreams he has dozing by the fire), the first character he meets in Spira, is Rikku (Mercury). She comes to Tidus’ aid after Tidus lights a fire in what appears to be a dilapidated temple near Baaj. As the fire begins to go out, a fiend attacks, and Rikku comes to fight by Tidus’ side. Though she goes missing for a while, Rikku, like the planet, provides our hero with a wide array of technology (machina), perhaps paralleling the technology Hermes provides for Perseus when preparing to fight Medusa – winged sandals and a magical cap, symbolizing the human intellect and imagination. Appropriately, the first mission with Rikku is the recovery of a lost piece of technology from underwater: “Fa vuiht dra airship!” one of the Al Bhed exclaims (“We found the airship!”), a device that, like the winged sandals of Mercury for Perseus, later help Tidus fly (and it’s not a wonder the sphere of Mercury is called “Splendor” on the Kabbalistic Tree).

Naturally, Rikku, the technology expert, later provides the party with another great perk: alchemy. Rikku’s planet, Mercury, is named after the Roman God whose Greek equivalent is Hermes, and, according to tradition, Hermes Trismegistus (thrice-blessed) invented and spread the art of alchemy; hence the art is also called Hermetics, Hermeticism, or the Hermetic art. Superficially, alchemy is the transmutation of base metals, such as lead, into finer metals, like gold. However, occultists use the symbolism and practice of alchemy for their own purposes: transmutation of the soul and spirit. The lead of the operation is the soul in its original state; the gold of the operation is the soul perfected.

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, mentioned above, utilizes both Gnostic and alchemical language (among other symbolism) in its lectures and rituals. C. G. Jung writes in his Psychology and Alchemy that the ancient Gnostic tradition, during the medieval era, adopted the guise of alchemy and survived through alchemical treatises, which, on the surface, appeared to be chemical and herbal instructions to make gold and powerful elixirs, but were subtle operations and instruction to make changes to the human mind. Similarly, Final Fantasy X‘s writers appear to have preserved Gnostic, alchemical myths in this guise, for others to chance upon and begin pilgrimages of their own. Though this essay may be complex, its content only scratches the surface of the deep alchemical allegory within Final Fantasy X, a mystery that awaits the revelation of a penetrating player.

The Revelatory Structure of Harry Potter

In his book The Great Code: The Bible and Literature, Northrop Frye outlines seven steps, stages, or sections of revelatory art. (The title of the book comes from William Blake – who called the Bible “the Great Code of Art.”) Frye’s “seven steps of revelation” are outlined as follows:

    1. Genesis or Creation
    2. Revolution or Exodus
    3. Law
    4. Wisdom
    5. Prophecy
    6. Gospel
    7. Apocalypse or Revelation

When I read this, being the Harry Potter nerd I am, I was struck with a fascinating parallel between these steps and the seven Harry Potter novels and the themes in each:

    1. Philosopher’s Stone
    2. Chamber of Secrets
    3. Prisoner of Azkaban
    4. Goblet of Fire
    5. Order of the Phoenix
    6. Half-Blood Prince
    7. Deathly Hallows

Of course, some of the parallels are obvious just by the names – particularly obvious are “wisdom” fitting with the themes and trials of Goblet of Fire (concerned much with Harry learning and using spells outside of the classroom) and “prophecy” with Order of the Phoenix (concerned with – gasp! – the prophecy) – and some of the others aren’t so obvious. One of the biggest reasons I see these parallels is the deliberately Christian themes in the last book of the series and the likeness of Harry Potter to Christ. A paragraph on each book should do well to establish at least a dim connection between the structures of these two tomes.

The first book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, is, by necessity, about the genesis of Harry Potter as we know him: his birth, his legend, and his induction into Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Admittedly, this parallel is necessary (how else would we get to know him?) but, given the parallels of the rest of the series and the seven steps of revelation, I drew the connection between the structure of the Bible and the structure of HP.

Chamber of Secrets focuses on a few important events: the creature lying beneath Hogwarts for years – the Slytherin legacy, Harry dealing with his likeness to Voldemort, and Voldemort’s control over Ginny Weasley. We are also introduced to Fawkes in this book – whose name comes from a radical revolutionary named Guy Fawkes who planned the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 (executed in 1606), an effigy of whom is burned on “Guy Fawkes Night” (Etymology note: Guy Fawkes is where the American English word “guy” comes from – it once meant a poorly dressed person after Fawkes). Fawkes the Phoenix, like Guy, bursts into flame and is reborn again from the ashes upon Harry’s first meeting with him, and he comes to revive Harry after he rescues Ginny and defeats the basilisk (a revolution or exodus from the rule of Voldemort), effectively creating a revolution or exodus theme for this book.

The parallels between Prisoner of Azkaban and “law” are not as obvious. We are introduced to the notion of “law” in a few ways in this book: Harry blowing up his aunt, Sirius Black’s escape from Azkaban, and Buckbeak’s trial and execution. It should be noted that Rowling intentionally presents the notion of “law” very flimsily: Fudge and the Ministry do not punish Harry for breaking the law against underage magic, Sirius Black escapes from Azkaban, and the Ministry’s plans to kill Buckbeak are foiled (by a couple of thirteen year olds no less). Additionally, Cornelius Fudge personally escorts Harry from the Knight Bus into the Leaky Cauldron. In Prisoner of Azkaban, Rowling establishes that lawgivers are not to be trusted and that sometimes matters delegated to the law – the Ministry – must be taken into your own hands.

Goblet of Fire represents a large turning point in the series (as, I think, it does in the Bible as well), in which magical “options” are presented to Harry for the first time. Based on the three tasks for the Triwizard tournament, Harry must learn spells in order to complete them. That is, he must procure wisdom based on the tasks before him. Of course, the “wisdom” for each task comes through Hagrid, Pseudo-Moody, Dobby, Cedric, and others, but Harry is presented with tasks and gathers wisdom (even becoming Hermione-like the night before the second task) nonetheless. Also, the Sphinx – traditionally a symbol of wisdom, truth, and mystery – and her riddle make this book scream “wisdom” to me.

Prophecy and Order of the Phoenix go hand-in-hand, of course, but I promised a paragraph for each, so here it goes. Voldemort seeks a prophecy contained in a glass sphere – “The Prophecy.” It is the prophecy that Sybil Trelawney made to Dumbledore just before Harry was born, and Voldemort, believing it, secured its reality by attacking Harry and his parents. Harry procures the sphere, but he and his friends are ambushed. The Dumbledore denouement of Order of the Phoenix reveals much to Harry and Rowling’s readers (in a chapter entitled “The Lost Prophecy”) with regard to the prophecy, which foretells Harry’s and Voldemort’s death in the last book of the series.

Admittedly, the connection between Half-Blood Prince and “gospel” is the stretchiest of stretches in this post. (This stretchiness is mostly due to space constraints and my fear of boring my readers. I’ll do my best, however.) In the book The Deathly Hallows Lectures, John Granger makes a very compelling connection between Snape and one of Rowling’s biggest – though I would argue littlest-known – influences: Dante, the Italian poet and author of the Divine Comedy. Granger, among other convincing evidence, connects Harry’s and his mother’s eyes with Beatrice, Dante’s muse. In short, Paradise of the Divine Comedy takes its readers through nine spheres of the Empyrean, or heaven: the spheres of Angels, Archangels, Principalities, Powers, Virtues, Dominions, Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. Without going too far into the details, suffice it to say that in the esoteric alchemical tradition, the poet or artist traverses seven of these spheres to gain what some call “crystal vision” – vision of the Holy Trinity.  That is, Snape becomes the Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher, and, if Snape is a Dante figure, Dante is in turn the teacher to Harry (a placeholder for Rowling, or her soul or some such thing) in this book. Snape’s book on potions, with hundreds of corrections and annotations to traditional potion-making (read: poetry- or novel-making) is Harry’s gospel, a symbol for Dante’s influence on her. This marks the “gospel” step of the seven steps of revelation. (Yeah, I know… weak. I wish I could go more into this one, and someday I probably will.)

Finally, we come to revelation or apocalypse and Deathly Hallows. Apocalypse comes from Greek, and it means “uncover, disclose, reveal”:

late 14c., “revelation, disclosure,” from Church Latin apocalypsis “revelation,” from Greek apokalyptein “uncover, disclose, reveal,” from apo- “from” (see apo-) + kalyptein “to cover, conceal” (see Calypso). The Christian end-of-the-world story is part of the revelation in John of Patmos’ book “Apokalypsis” (a title rendered into English as “Apocalypse” c.1230 and “Revelations” by Wyclif c.1380). (Etymonline.com)

That is, the “apocalypse” (in the Bible and in Harry Potter) is an event very unlike the one we see in contemporary biblical exegesis (i.e. primarily eschatological). It is not a revelation for St. John only. It is a revelation or disclosure of information, an uncovering and symbolic rending of a veil, merely symbolized by death and cataclysm in St. John’s book. Indeed, in Deathly Hallows and in St. John’s Revelation, we are faced with death galore. The most remarkable death in Rowling’s series, of course, in an echo of Christ’s death on the cross, is Harry’s death in the forest. During his “death,” he travels to King’s Cross, and after he comes back, Voldemort uses crucio (“cross,” based on Latin crux, its genitive being crucis) on what Voldemort believes is Harry’s lifeless corpse. This is the point at which in the symbolist tradition the poet receives crystal vision, and at which Rubeus Hagrid is forced to carry Harry’s corpse (the transformed soul) back to Hogwarts.

I hope from this that the relation between – and indeed the revelation of – the Bible and Harry Potter have been highlighted as I intended. Thanks for reading.

The Husks and the Fruit

“All art is at once surface and symbol. Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril. Those who read the symbol do so at their peril.”

–  Oscar Wilde, from the Preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray

Symbol means, in its etymological root,

literally “that which is thrown or cast together,” from syn– “together” (see syn-) + bole “a throwing, a casting, the stroke of a missile, bolt, or beam,” from bol-, nominative stem of ballein “to throw” (Etymonline.com)

What two things, exactly, does a symbol “cast together”? I hope to establish this and more in the following essay. What I hope to establish is that the two things that are “cast” together are matter and spirit – or material consciousness and a nonmaterial concept which exists somewhere deep in our psyche. That is a symbol is a sensible, material sign that stands for something that is not material, and it casts the two together.

Frithjof Schuon and others in the symbolist tradition chased what has been called throughout the history of the humanities the “perennial tradition” otherwise known as the “perennial Sophia.” (Therion indeed has a song about “The Perennial Sophia,” which you can – and should – listen to here.) The perennial Sophia is, Schuon says, the “transcendent unity” behind all religious traditions, and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, editor of The Essential Frithjof Schuon, explains Schuon’s theory as such:

[Schuon] emphasizes perennial religion, or religio perennis, that he also calls the religion of the heart, which resides at the center of every particular religion and also at the center and in the very substance from which man is made. (Schuon 5)

In an essay on Sufism, Schuon explains that there is a “spirit” behind the “husk” of all the religions:

Behind the husk of the literal text [exists] a concrete and active spiritual presence which goes beyond the words and the mind. (Schuon 304)

The title of this blog entry, of course, comes from this essay by Schuon. Schuon refers to a fruit or a seed or a spirit that goes beyond literal text, past images and symbols and into somewhere ethereal. I will delineate in this essay two sides to the religions here analyzed: 1) the husk or shell (exoterism) and 2) the seed, fruit, or spirit (esoterism). Again, Nasr explains in the introduction to the massive volume:

Religion is like a walnut, to use the Sufi image, with both a shell and the core or fruit which can grow and possess existence only within the shell. The purpose of the shell is to protect the fruit but without the shell there would be no fruit. Likewise, the final end of religion is to guide man to God, to enable man to be delivered from the bondage of limitation which is the goal of esoterism here in this life and which even exoterism aspires to in future life. (Schuon 12; emphasis mine)

You cannot send a message without a vessel through which the message travels (without performing some sort of Star Trek Vulcan-esque mindmeld), and this shell or husk, once pulled or peeled away, provides access to the fruit within. This is what a symbol “casts together”: the sign (letters on the page), the shell (image) and the fruit (signified).

So where does the “husk” or “shell” come from?

When people write, they write what they know. If a person frequents the desert and rides camels, that person will write about deserts and camels, or in very near proximity to such. If one has never seen or heard of a camel, one can’t very much write about a camel. The authors of Judaic scriptures wrote about deserts, rivers, and temples which they knew very well. If the authors of the Judaic scriptures can conceive in their minds a green, flowery oasis, they might write about that too – and perhaps call it the Garden of Eden? –and use it as one of their symbols.The authors of the Christian scriptures wrote about shepherds, sheep, boats, Romans, Pharisees, and other familiar figures. When Rowling was a child, she wrote many stories about rabbits – not because she had one, but because she and her sister knew of rabbits and desired one very much. This rule rings true for religion and mythology and the perennial tradition as well.

And many alchemical operations, like religious and mythological tales, are symbolic, metonymic, allegorical, and at their core (their fruit?) spiritual. That is, they each tell a symbolic story of the perennial Sophia – explorations of psychic contents that are the same in essence but different in form. Yes, even within the same tradition the process takes a different form. The shell is, however, necessary.

It must be noted and emphasized that a majority of people – indeed most people – will not see the fruit of the story. They may catch glimpses of it or have a notion of it, but it takes a special kind of nature to perceive clearly the fruit or spirit. Therefore, the outer shell of the tale or mythology must be convincing and gripping enough to hold the attention of those who only see the shell. The exoteric tradition must be as compelling – or more compelling – than the esoteric one, and must survive in order to pass the esoteric side of the tradition on, as Nasr explains:

Exoterism is…absolutely necessary to make the attainment of [deliverance from bondage] through esoterism possible even when man lives in this world. Without the exoteric, no esoterism could survive and be efficacious. But also without esoterism religion would be reduced to only its external aspects without means of providing a way for those whose nature is such that they must follow the esoteric path in order to follow religion. (Schuon 13)

I urge my readers to, if they so desire, look within the symbols of religious traditions for the “transcendent unity of all religions,” and follow the path. It is said to be full of thorns, but “sublime”:

The Path by which to Deity we climb
Is arduous, rough, ineffable, sublime;
And the strong massy gates thro’ which we pass,
In our first course, are bound with chains of brass;
Those men, the first who of Egyptian birth,
Drank the fair water of Nilotic earth,
Disclosed by actions infinite this road.
And many paths to God Phoenicians showed;
This road the Assyrians pointed out to view,
And this the Lydians and Chaldeans knew.
– Oracle of Apollo, from Eusebius