The first time I played Final Fantasy X was around 2002, when a friend let me borrow it one summer. I was hooked immediately. Since this first experience with it, I have played through the game countless times, spending many summers or weeks between semesters at college with one of my favorite games of all time. As I got further in my study of literature, mythology, and mysticism, I made connections between the traditions I was reading and FFX. I began to see the patterns and ideas behind FFX’s story that paralleled others, and it was a fascinating and liberating experience. When reading Joseph Campbell’s concept of monomyth, Jung’s explication of alchemy, and treatises in the Hermetic tradition, my mind has consistently turned to this game as an exemplar of these patterns and concepts. When I was young, I didn’t quite grasp the profundity of Tidus’ journey, and though I loved the gameplay and the narrative, I thought the story was some anti-church, anti-religion atheistic manifesto: the head church officials of Spira perpetuate Sin in the world by their faulty traditions, knowingly give the lives of Spira’s summoners and their guardians over to Sin, and keep the masses docile via a ban on technology, or machina. Of course, this is all true, but the story is much more complex. Final Fantasy X tells the story of a liberation of soul and spirit from bondage and contains dozens of brilliant uses of various mythological traditions, including Gnosticism and alchemy.
The word sin evokes strong feelings for both Christians and non-Christians alike. The koine Greek word which is translated sin in English is hamartia. Hamartia (ἁμαρτία) means, literally, “to miss the mark,” originally an archery term for when one misses the target, possibly evoking for some classicists an image of Cupid accidentally shooting earth-dwellers (or fellow gods) with arrows, infecting them with passion. In the Pauline epistles, the word for law is nomos, and Paul’s hamartia is an inborn principle in the natural, fallen human that gives humans a tendency toward defying the nomos (which is in place, given by God, to restrain these tendencies). Ultimately, for Paul, the death of Christ gave him a freedom from the nomos, not because he did not follow it anymore, but because he was no longer bound by it. That is, Christ’s death internalized the nomos for Paul, while it had put an end to hamartia. Of course, the word sin has come to carry a meaning far beyond the way the Greeks, and even Paul, used it, especially in Christian churches whose members are concerned with the operations of society and the actions of the individuals in that society, for fear these individuals will go to hell (Hebrew sheol, literally “grave”). Putting the reality of the Judeo-Christian hell aside, let’s move on to the topic at hand: Final Fantasy X. In the story, the people of Spira have named the gigantic monster “Sin,” a monster whom followers of Yevon believe is a punishment for their past transgressions.
In FFX, pilgrimaging summoners and their guardians attempt to destroy Sin and bring about a temporary Calm, only to keep a new Sin (necessary to remove the old one) remaining in Spira (whose name sounds like “spiral”). Unbeknownst to Tidus when he sets off on his journey with Yuna, the destruction of Sin necessitates two sacrifices: a sacrifice of the summoner him- or herself and a sacrifice of one of the summoner’s guardians. Although the summoner is lost forever, the sacrificed guardian becomes the new Sin. The cycle continues in this way, and it would have continued forever if not for the actions of Yuna and her companions in the story of FFX – where the summoner and her guardians fight and destroy the previous final aeon, Tidus’ father Jecht, rather than summoning a final aeon to swallow Jecht – and the summoner and guardian – up.
As some of you may know, aeon is used in Gnosticism to describe the emanations of God. The first of three Aeons in many systems is known variously as Sige (“silence”), Ennoea (“thought”), or Charis (“grace”), and is a perfect being. The next two emanations, one male and one female, are Nous (“mind”) and Aletheia (“truth”). These aeons dwell in the upper strata of Pleroma (that is, “the region of the light”); meanwhile, those that dwell at the lower end of Pleroma are closer to the darkness or material world. Though each system begins with the perfect being and ends in the material realm (darkness), different Gnostic systems have separate accounts of and names for the emanations. Furthermore, as Wikipedia explains, in Gnosticism, the
transition from immaterial to material, from noumenal to sensible, is created by a flaw, passion, or sin in an Aeon. According to Basilides, it is a flaw in the last sonship; according to others the sin of the Great Archon, or Aeon-Creator, of the Universe; according to others it is the passion of the female Aeon Sophia, who emanates without her partner Aeon, resulting in the Demiurge (Greek Δημιουργός), a creature that should never have been. This creature does not belong to Pleroma, and the One emanates two savior Aeons, Christ and the Holy Spirit, to save humanity from the Demiurge. Christ then took a human form (Jesus), to teach humanity how to achieve Gnosis. The ultimate end of all Gnosis is metanoia [(Greek *μετάνοια*, or “repentance”)]—undoing the sin of material existence and returning to Pleroma.
That is, Gnostics in antiquity disagreed (at least superficially) about what exactly causes the transition from the noumenal to the phenomenal (or sensible) world. However, the solution for sin, for the tendency toward the material realm, was always the same – metanoia. Much like hamartia, the word metanoia has become much distorted also. To achieve metanoia, one need not enter into a sobbing fit in a confessional of a church or admit all one’s wrongdoings to one’s mother or principal, including that time you cheated on your homework in high school, as the word repentance may connote for some today. Metanoia simply means “changing one’s mind” – that is, it is something that is done inwardly to oneself, not outwardly. It is a shift in one’s mind away from darkness and toward the region of light: “Long hast thou dwelt in Darkness,” the Neophyte Ritual of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, dense with Gnostic thought, tells its initiates, “Quit the Night and seek the Day” (Regardie 126).
Anyway, each of Spira’s summoners has access to the pantheon of aeons, access to each of which is gained through prayer at a designated temple, only after completing an ordeal called a Cloister of Trials. Each Final Fantasy aeon is conceptually borrowed from a religious or mythological system, several of which are highlighted in Table 1 below.
|Aeon||Name comes from…||Appears as…||More info|
|Valefor||The sixth spirit of the Goetia, demon by day of the third decanate of Taurus, apparently a “good familiar, but tempts to steal” (Godwin 323).||According to Mathers, “a lion with the bellowing head of an ass.”||Deliriums Realm|
|Ifrit||Class of jinn who embody fire in Arabian mythology||Jinn, djinn, or genies inhabit the invisible realm. According to the Qu’ran, the jinn are the third class of sentient creatures alongside angels and humans.||Wikipedia|
|Ixion||In Greek mythology, Ixion was summoned to the table of the gods, and hit on Hera. Jupiter tricked Ixion into sleeping with a cloud made to look like Hera, and was strapped to a flaming wheel that revolves around the world as punishment.||Probably human, but the fake Hera gave birth to the centaurs; hence, Ixion appears as a horse-like creature.||Pantheon.org|
|Shiva||Shiva, Hindu god of destruction, or possibly the Slavic goddess of life and fertility, Ziva. (Both are appropriate, given that Shiva is also the god of duality.)||Shiva appears blue (like FFX’s Shiva) after saving the world by drinking poison. Ziva appears as a scantily clad woman (also like FFX’s Shiva).||Sanatan Society|
|Bahamut||Behemoth is a land monster (as opposed to Leviathan, a water monster) in Hebrew mythology, mentioned in Job 40:15 and identified with the Devil in apocalyptic literature (e.g. Revelation).
Bahamut, certainly related to Behemoth, is also a large fish that supports the earth in Arabian mythology.
|Chaos monster destroyed at the time of creation, sometimes a dragon.
Large fish, sometimes having the head of a hippopotamus or an elephant.
According to Borges, Bahamut is the large fish that Jesus beholds on the 496th night of the One Thousand and One Nights: “It carries a bull on its head; the bull bears a rock, and above the rock is an angel who carries the seven stages of the earths. Beneath Bahamut is an abyss of air, then fire, and beneath that a giant serpent called Falak.”
Of course, Braska’s Final Aeon is not borrowed from other mythologies; other than “Jecht,” (it is called “Jecht, l’Ultime Chimère” in the French version) the aeon doesn’t even have a name: it is wholly a fantasy, a chimera, of its summoner Braska’s imagination. Years after Braska’s summoning, once Sin had returned, Braska’s daughter and Jecht’s son set out to bring the Calm once again, continuing the cycle. In literature, and especially in the Bible, there is a figurative use of the father/son and father/daughter relationship that will be relevant here.
The father/son and father/daughter relationship in literature is a metaphorical one. The son of the father-son relationship is much like a disciple rather than a literal child that a father has birthed. Consider for a moment the following: when a mentor or teacher teaches someone an idea, the teacher gives “birth” to that idea in that person’s mind. Whole systems could be given birth in this way if the teacher is some combination of effective, careful, and crafty. Art, especially literature, uses this metaphor to a large extent; the first use that comes to my mind is Ezekiel 16:3, when the prophet speaks to Israel (who is metaphorically a woman – sometimes an adopted child of God, sometimes an adulterous lover of God – throughout the prophets):
Thus saith the Lord God unto Jerusalem: Thy birth and thy Nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite…
The passage continues to describe how the Lord God clothed her and raised her as his own, but the metaphorical parentage here is all we care about for now: the “father” of Israel/Jerusalem was culturally an Amorite. In the same vein, often in Western literature, the “father” of the hero should be taken doubly as a biological father and a spiritual father; the father is both the father of the body and of the mind or thought. For a mundane example, the late Northrop Frye has been called the “critical father” of contemporary critic Harold Bloom, and the anxiety of this relationship haunts Bloom in a way. Bloom, the “critical son” of the relationship takes a tremendous influence from Frye’s thought, and there’s certainly a debt and a bit of resentment in Bloom’s mind.
Tidus’ journey of reconciliation with his father takes the archetypal pattern of the “hero’s journey” myth, sometimes called monomyth. As Joseph Campbell describes, the journey (depicted as a cycle) may include any or all of the following, outlined in three acts: Act I, Separation; Act II, Descent and Initiation; and Act III, Return. First, the hero is called to adventure, and the hero usually refuses the call. Next, the hero meets his mentor and crosses the threshold. The hero goes through a series of tests, meeting allies and enemies along the way. Eventually, the hero approaches an “inmost cave” and faces a great challenge, the completion of which gives him a reward or boon. The story then focuses on the road back, when there is a breakthrough to the other side once again, a resurrection, and a return with a boon for the people. Each step and its manifestation in FFX are outlined below in Table 2.
|Archetypal Step||Appears in FFX as…|
|Call to adventure||Auron’s call to Tidus and the appearance of Sin in Tidus’ Zanarkand|
|Meeting the Mentor||Tidus and the player meet Auron|
|Crossing the threshold||Tidus and Auron get sent to Spira through contact with Sin|
|Tests, allies, and enemies||Path to Zanarkand, the “tests” at the temples, the guardians, and the enemies (e.g. Seymour)|
|Approach the inmost cave||Enter into the belly of Sin|
|The ordeal||Defeat of Sin|
|Reward||The Eternal Calm|
Tidus’ allies – Yuna and her guardians – have the option to collect sigils and crests to unlock their celestial weapons along the journey to the inmost cave. Each sigil and crest pair is named after one of the seven planets in Chaldean astrology. The table below lists each character and corresponding planet in the US English version of the game, ordered from closest to farthest from Earth.
Aside from being the only apparently moving sources of light in the sky, these seven planets were named and venerated, painted on Babylonian temples as a series of “planes” to the divine, and were thought to have influence over the fate of humans. The table above orders the planets by their apparent proximity to Earth, like a ladder up to the stars if we were living in a geocentric universe.
If you recall, the first three emanations of God in Gnosticism are the perfect being, then a male, and then a female emanation – grace, mind, and truth. This may remind some of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, whose first three Sephiroth (or spheres) are Kether (Crown), Chokmah (Wisdom), and Binah (Understanding). The last two of the three spheres on the Tree of Life, like the last two of the three emanations of God mentioned from Gnosticism, are masculine and feminine, respectively, the first providing the ability to conceive and the third providing the possibility for a thought to take a shape. The ten spheres of the Tree – which are emanations from God, and not necessarily of God – are depicted across three columns. In order after Binah, they are Chesed, Geburah, Tiphareth, Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Malkuth.
In some Kabbalistic traditions (mostly those of the Hermetic flavor), practitioners attribute to each of the spheres along the Tree of Life a planet, and each of the 22 Major Arcana of the tarot to the connecting paths between them, as can be seen here. I should mention here that each of the Major Arcana cards are also attributed to a Hebrew letter, and additionally some are given a planet, a zodiacal constellation, or a classical element.
There exists a fantastic set of correspondences in FFX using the Tree of Life from Qabalah. As shown above, the characters’ sigils and crests correspond to the seven planets used in Chaldean astrology. In the game, there are certain places wherein only Wakka, Tidus, and Rikku may go (only these three members of your party can swim; the other members must remain behind). Do these three members’ planetary attributions bear a connection to their ability to swim underwater? You’ll notice that the corresponding Sephiroth of their planets (Mercury, Sun, Jupiter) on the Tree appear in a kind of diagonal line, beginning on the side of Mercy in Chesed and ending on the side of Severity in Hod. The paths connecting these three Sephiroth (and one adjacent) are attributed to the three earthy zodiacal constellations: between Hod/Mercury and Tiphareth/Sun lies The Devil/Capricorn (cardinal earth), and between Tiphareth/Sun and Chesed/Jupiter lies The Hermit/Virgo (mutable earth). The third earth card or sign, The Hierophant/Taurus (fixed earth) lies between Chesed and Chokmah, just above Wakka’s sphere. Most of you will be familiar with the hierarchy of the classical elements – in order, starting with the most subtle, they are fire, air, water, and earth. Naturally, the reason Wakka, Tidus, and Rikku are able to travel and explore under the “water” in the game is their earthiness.
(In his book on astrology, Aleister Crowley describes an aspect of the human psyche and calls it the Sensorium. The Sensorium is the part of the soul that stores sense perceptions and sends them back into consciousness. I think the Wakka, Tidus, Rikku trio is something like this aspect of the mind.)
Now, if this idea is applied to the story, we begin to see much more meaning in all of these attributions and connections. The first person Tidus (the Sun) encounters after his first contact with Sin (besides the dreams he has dozing by the fire), the first character he meets in Spira, is Rikku (Mercury). She comes to Tidus’ aid after Tidus lights a fire in what appears to be a dilapidated temple near Baaj. As the fire begins to go out, a fiend attacks, and Rikku comes to fight by Tidus’ side. Though she goes missing for a while, Rikku, like the planet, provides our hero with a wide array of technology (machina), perhaps paralleling the technology Hermes provides for Perseus when preparing to fight Medusa – winged sandals and a magical cap, symbolizing the human intellect and imagination. Appropriately, the first mission with Rikku is the recovery of a lost piece of technology from underwater: “Fa vuiht dra airship!” one of the Al Bhed exclaims (“We found the airship!”), a device that, like the winged sandals of Mercury for Perseus, later help Tidus fly (and it’s not a wonder the sphere of Mercury is called “Splendor” on the Kabbalistic Tree).
Naturally, Rikku, the technology expert, later provides the party with another great perk: alchemy. Rikku’s planet, Mercury, is named after the Roman God whose Greek equivalent is Hermes, and, according to tradition, Hermes Trismegistus (thrice-blessed) invented and spread the art of alchemy; hence the art is also called Hermetics, Hermeticism, or the Hermetic art. Superficially, alchemy is the transmutation of base metals, such as lead, into finer metals, like gold. However, occultists use the symbolism and practice of alchemy for their own purposes: transmutation of the soul and spirit. The lead of the operation is the soul in its original state; the gold of the operation is the soul perfected.
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, mentioned above, utilizes both Gnostic and alchemical language (among other symbolism) in its lectures and rituals. C. G. Jung writes in his Psychology and Alchemy that the ancient Gnostic tradition, during the medieval era, adopted the guise of alchemy and survived through alchemical treatises, which, on the surface, appeared to be chemical and herbal instructions to make gold and powerful elixirs, but were subtle operations and instruction to make changes to the human mind. Similarly, Final Fantasy X‘s writers appear to have preserved Gnostic, alchemical myths in this guise, for others to chance upon and begin pilgrimages of their own. Though this essay may be complex, its content only scratches the surface of the deep alchemical allegory within Final Fantasy X, a mystery that awaits the revelation of a penetrating player.